Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Res. 2016 Jul;148:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.03.015. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Acrolein metabolites, diabetes and insulin resistance.

Author information

Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME, USA.
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:


Acrolein is a dietary and environmental pollutant that has been associated in vitro to dysregulate glucose transport. We investigated the association of urinary acrolein metabolites N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (3-HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine (CEMA) and their molar sum (∑acrolein) with diabetes using data from investigated 2027 adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After excluding participants taking insulin or other diabetes medication we, further, investigated the association of the compounds with insulin resistance (n=850), as a categorical outcome expressed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR>2.6). As secondary analyses, we investigated the association of the compounds with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, fasting insulin and fasting plasma glucose. The analyses were performed using urinary creatinine as independent variable in the models, and, as sensitivity analyses, the compounds were used as creatinine corrected variables. Diabetes as well as insulin resistance (defined as HOMA-IR>2.6) were positively associated with the 3-HPMA, CEMA and ∑Acrolein with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p<0.05). The highest 3rd and 4th quartiles of CEMA compared to the lowest quartile were significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin with a dose-response relationship. The highest 3rd quartile of 3-HPMA and ∑Acrolein were positively and significantly associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin. These results suggest a need of further studies to fully understand the implications of acrolein with type 2 diabetes and insulin.


HOMA; N-acetyl-S-(3-Hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine; N-acetyl-S-(Carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine; NHANES

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center