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Gametocytocidal effect of primaquine in a chemotherapeutic malaria control trial in North Sumatra, Indonesia.

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North Sumatra Health Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan.


The effect of primaquine as a gametocytocidal drug was investigated in 218 P. falciparum (Pf) malaria cases detected during passive case detection (PCD) from August to December 1985 in two coastal villages of North Sumatra, where chloroquine-resistant and Fansidar-sensitive Pf was prevalent. Sulfonamide + pyrimethamine (SP) in combination with primaquine (Pr) was administered in Kuala Tanjung village and SP alone in Nana Siam village. Parasitologically confirmed Pf cases were followed up to observe the fluctuation of gametocytemia after the treatment. In 87 cases treated with SP alone, no significant change was observed in gametocyte positivity rate (GPR) and density on day 2 and day 7. In 131 cases treated with SP and Pr, no significant change was found on day 2 but significant reduction was observed in GPR and density on day 7. The gametocyte positive cases on day 7 were followed up weekly until gametocytes disappeared. SP alone did not reduce GPR from day 0 to week 2, then afterward GPR began to decline but was still 11.5% at week 5. On the other hand, SP with Pr reduced GPR from 77% on day 0 to 30% on day 7, after which GPR declined further to 7% at week 3. Reduction of parasite rate was observed in Kuala Tanjung after the PCD activities, reflecting a reduction in Pf prevalence rate from 18.6% in August 1985 to 2.9% in January 1986. These data indicate that a single dose of Pr 45 mg with SP was partially effective in reducing gametocytes and reducing malaria prevalence rate when administered through PCD activities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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