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Eur J Heart Fail. 2016 Jun;18(6):650-6. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.494. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Long-term excess mortality in takotsubo cardiomyopathy: predictors, causes and clinical consequences.

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University of Leipzig - Heart Centre, Department of Internal Medicine - Cardiology, Leipzig, Germany.
University Heart Centre of Luebeck, Medical Clinic II, Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Intensive Care Medicine, Luebeck, Germany.
Centre for Clinical Trials and Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany.



Despite increasing research efforts, the prognostic consequences of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the long-term mortality rate of TTC patients with high-risk patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).


A total of 286 patients with TTC were matched for age and gender with 286 STEMI patients. Outcome was obtained with a standardized telephone follow-up. The primary analysis determined long-term mortality. A secondary analysis was performed evaluating 28-day and 1-year mortality. Follow-up was available for 96% of patients after a mean of 3.8 ± 2.5 years. In TTC patients, long-term mortality was significantly higher compared with the matched STEMI cohort [24.7% vs. 15.1%, hazard ratio (HR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.33; P = 0.02]. There was no significant difference in the rates of 28-day (5.5% vs. 5.7%, HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.47-1.94; P = 0.91) and 1-year mortality (12.5% vs. 9%, HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.85-2.38; P = 0.18). In multivariable regression analysis, male sex, a high Killip class on admission, and diabetes mellitus were identified as independent predictors of mortality in TTC patients. A risk score consisting of these factors showed a higher mortality with an increasing number of risk factors.


Mortality rates in TTC patients are higher than previously expected and long-term mortality exceeded that of patients with STEMI. A simple risk score may provide an approach to identify high-risk patients and predict clinical prognosis.


Apical ballooning syndrome; Long-term prognosis; Mortality; Stress cardiomyopathy; Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

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