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J Food Sci. 2016 Apr;81(4):T1031-7. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13269. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Inorganic and Total Arsenic Contents in Rice and Rice-Based Foods Consumed by a Potential Risk Subpopulation: Sportspeople.

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Authors Cano-Lamadrid, Munera-Picazo, and Carbonell-Barrachina are with Univ. Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Dept. of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group "Food Quality and Safety,", Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain.
Author Munera-Picazo is with Centro de Agroingeniería, Inst. Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Carretera Moncada-Náquera, km 4.5, 46113-Moncada, Valencia, Spain.
Author Burgos-Hernández is with Univ. de Sonora, Depto. de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Apartado Postal, 1658, Hermosillo, Sonora, México.


One of the main routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic (i-As) in humans is food, especially rice and rice-based products. There are certain groups of consumers that could be highly exposed to i-As. Maximum levels of i-As have been issued for infants and young children by the European Union, but perhaps other groups are also at risk. Sportspeople could be one of those groups, due to their specific nutritional requirements, especially its high consumption of cereals, such as rice. Because of the well-known relationship between rice and i-As, the intake of i-As by sportspeople deserved especial attention and was estimated in Spain. This study demonstrated that rice-based products reached a maximum i-As content of 178 μg/kg, with a mean for all studied products of 56 μg/kg; the maximum contents were found in rice cakes (149 μg/kg) and brown rice (111 μg/kg). The estimated daily intake of i-As were 0.16 and 0.18 μg/kg bw (body weight)/d, in sportsmen and sportswomen, respectively. These values were below the BMDL01 , 0.3 to 8.0 μg/kg bw/d; thus, it can be concluded that the sportspeople group is not at a significant risk regarding the intake of i-As. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their whole diet and not only rice-based products. Finally, it is important to claim that companies producing rice products include as much information as possible about the rice used in their products, including rice percentage and geographical origin.


Oryza sativa; arsenic speciation; dietary intake; food safety; metalloids

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