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J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016 Jul;57(7):851-60. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12548. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Longitudinal effects of prenatal exposure to air pollutants on self-regulatory capacities and social competence.

Author information

1
Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
2
New York State Psychiatric Center, New York, NY, USA.
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
4
Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
6
Institute for the Developing Mind, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
7
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We evaluated the influence of prenatal exposure to widespread urban air pollutants on the development of self-regulation and social competence in a longitudinal prospective cohort of children born to nonsmoking minority women in New York City.

METHODS:

Air pollutant exposure was estimated categorically by level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in maternal blood collected at delivery, providing a biomarker of maternal exposure to PAH over a 2- to 3-month period. Deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) was defined as moderate elevations on three specific scales of the child behavior checklist (anxious/depressed, aggressive behavior, and attention problems). We used generalized estimating equations to assess the influence of prenatal exposure to PAH on DESR in children at 3-5, 7, 9, and 11 years of age, adjusted for gender and race/ethnicity. Next, we assessed the association of prenatal exposure to PAH with social competence, as measured by the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the association of impaired self-regulation with social competence, and whether impairment in self-regulation mediated the association of prenatal exposure to PAH with social competence.

RESULTS:

We detected a significant interaction (at p = .05) of exposure with time, in which the developmental trajectory of self-regulatory capacity was delayed in the exposed children. Multiple linear regression revealed a positive association between presence of PAH-DNA adducts and problems with social competence (p < .04), level of dysregulation and problems with social competence (p < .0001), and evidence that self-regulation mediates the association of prenatal exposure to PAH with social competence (p < .0007).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH produces long-lasting effects on self-regulatory capacities across early and middle childhood, and that these deficits point to emerging social problems with real-world consequences for high-risk adolescent behaviors in this minority urban cohort.

KEYWORDS:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; prenatal exposure; self-regulation; social competence

PMID:
26989990
PMCID:
PMC5333974
DOI:
10.1111/jcpp.12548
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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