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Annu Rev Public Health. 2016;37:295-311. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021556.

Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

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Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education and.
Department of Sociology, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742.
Division of Epidemiology and.
Division of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada.
Department of Health Behavior, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.
Department of Health Management and Policy, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63104; email:
Center for Medicine, Health, and Society and.
Institute for Research on Men's Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37240.


Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men.


African American; health equity; intersectionality; men's health; men's health disparities; social determinants of health

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