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PeerJ. 2016 Mar 8;4:e1762. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1762. eCollection 2016.

Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues.

Author information

1
CSIRO Agriculture , St. Lucia, QLD , Australia.
2
NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, University of New England , Armidale, NSW , Australia.
3
The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh , Easter Bush , UK.
4
School of Animal Biology and Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia , Perth, Western Australia , Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants?

METHODS:

Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related).

RESULTS:

The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E-46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different between the species and different between the rumen and colon in sheep. The importance of nitrogen and iodine recycling in sheep was highlighted by the highly preferential expression of SLC14A1-urea (rumen), RHBG-ammonia (intestines) and SLC5A5-iodine (abomasum). The gene encoding a poorly characterized member of the maltase-glucoamylase family (MGAM2), predicted to play a role in the degradation of starch or glycogen, was highly expressed in the small and large intestines.

DISCUSSION:

The rumen appears to be a specialised stratified cornified epithelium, probably derived from the oesophagus, which has gained some liver-like and other specialized metabolic functions, but probably not by expression of pre-existing colon metabolic programs. Changes in gene transcription downstream of the rumen also appear have occurred as a consequence of the evolution of the rumen and its effect on nutrient composition flowing down the GIT.

KEYWORDS:

Cell cycle; Evolution; Gastrointestinal tract; Ketone bodies; Metabolim; RNA sequencing; Rumen; Sheep; Short chain fatty acids; Transcriptome network

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