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J Thyroid Res. 2016;2016:8765049. doi: 10.1155/2016/8765049. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Prenatal Exposures to Multiple Thyroid Hormone Disruptors: Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

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  • 1School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia.
  • 2School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia; UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia.
  • 3School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia; UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia; Conjoint Endocrine Laboratory, Chemical Pathology, Pathology Queensland, Queensland Health, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Abstract

Background. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal human fetal development and play a major role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Delivery of TH to target tissues is dependent on processes including TH synthesis, transport, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone endocrine disruptors (TH-EDCs) are chemical substances that interfere with these processes, potentially leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives. This review focuses on the effects of prenatal exposures to combinations of TH-EDCs on fetal and neonatal glucose and lipid metabolism and also discusses the various mechanisms by which TH-EDCs interfere with other hormonal pathways. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive narrative review on the effects of TH-EDCs with particular emphasis on exposure during pregnancy. Discussion. TH imbalance has been linked to many metabolic processes and the effects of TH imbalance are particularly pronounced in early fetal development due to fetal dependence on maternal TH for proper growth and development. The pervasive presence of EDCs in the environment results in ubiquitous exposure to either single or mixtures of EDCs with deleterious effects on metabolism. Conclusions. Further evaluation of combined effects of TH-EDCs on fetal metabolic endpoints could improve advice provided to expectant mothers.

PMID:
26989557
PMCID:
PMC4773558
DOI:
10.1155/2016/8765049

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