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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Sep;71(9):1171-6. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glw028. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Life Expectancy With and Without Pain in the U.S. Elderly Population.

Author information

1
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco. zachary.zimmer@ucsf.edu.
2
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study contributes to dialogue on quality versus quantity of life by examining years older persons can expect to live in various states of pain.

METHODS:

Data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study; N = 26,896; age 55+. Estimations using the Interpolative Markov Chain approach apply probability transitions to multistate life table functions. Two estimates are interpreted: (i) population-based, which provide population averages aggregated across baseline states and (ii) status-based, which provide independent estimates by baseline state. Age- and sex-specific years with no pain, milder nonlimiting, and severe or limiting pain are reported as is percent of life in states of pain.

RESULTS:

Females have higher life expectancy than males but similar expectations of pain-free life. Total life expectancy varies only slightly by baseline pain states but pain-free life expectancy varies greatly. For example, an 85-year-old female pain-free at baseline expects 7.04 more years, 5.28 being pain-free. An 85-year-old female with severe pain at baseline expects 6.42 years with only 2.66 pain-free. Percent of life with pain decreases by age for those pain-free at baseline and increases for those with pain at baseline.

CONCLUSION:

Pain is moderately associated with quantity of or total life but substantially and importantly associated with quality of or pain-free life.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Demography; Health and Retirement Survey; Interpolative Markov Chains; Longevity; Multistate life tables; Quality of life

PMID:
26988661
PMCID:
PMC4978363
DOI:
10.1093/gerona/glw028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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