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J Phycol. 2015 Aug;51(4):782-90. doi: 10.1111/jpy.12318. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.
2
Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Baltimore, Maryland, 21202, USA.
3
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361100, China.

Abstract

Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria.

KEYWORDS:

Chesapeake Bay; estuary; picocyanobacteria; psychrotolerant; winter

PMID:
26986796
DOI:
10.1111/jpy.12318

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