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Amino Acids. 2016 May;48(5):1131-49. doi: 10.1007/s00726-016-2208-1. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Physiological and therapeutic effects of carnosine on cardiometabolic risk and disease.

Author information

1
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 43-51 Kanooka Grove, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC, 3168, Australia.
2
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.
3
Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
4
Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
5
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
7
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 43-51 Kanooka Grove, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC, 3168, Australia. barbora.decourten@monash.edu.
8
Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia. barbora.decourten@monash.edu.

Abstract

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They represent major public health threat to our society. Increasing prevalence of obesity and T2DM contributes to escalating morbidity and mortality from CVD and stroke. Carnosine (╬▓-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-ischaemic and chelating roles and is available as an over-the-counter food supplement. Animal evidence suggests that carnosine may offer many promising therapeutic benefits for multiple chronic diseases due to these properties. Carnosine, traditionally used in exercise physiology to increase exercise performance, has potential preventative and therapeutic benefits in obesity, insulin resistance, T2DM and diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications (CVD and stroke) as well as number of neurological and mental health conditions. However, relatively little evidence is available in humans. Thus, future studies should focus on well-designed clinical trials to confirm or refute a potential role of carnosine in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, in addition to advancing knowledge from the basic science and animal studies.

KEYWORDS:

Atherosclerosis; Carnosine; Cholesterol; Energy expenditure; Insulin resistance; Ischaemia; Obesity; Skeletal muscle; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
26984320
DOI:
10.1007/s00726-016-2208-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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