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J Neurooncol. 2016 Jun;128(2):217-23. doi: 10.1007/s11060-016-2107-z. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Phloretin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.
2
The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.
3
Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Neurosciences Research Institute, Peking University, Beijing, 100083, China.
4
Department of Neurobiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100083, China.
5
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100043, China.
6
The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China. zhengl@bjmu.edu.cn.
7
Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China. ynhuang@sina.com.

Abstract

Phloretin, a flavonoid present in various plants, has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects. However, the mechanism of its chemo-preventive effect on human glioblastoma cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of phloretin and its associated chemo-preventive effect in human glioblastoma cells. The results indicate that phloretin inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase and induced apoptosis of human glioblastoma cells. Phloretin-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with increased expression of p27 and decreased expression of cdk2, cdk4, cdk6, cyclinD and cyclinE. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades were suppressed by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, phloretin triggered the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax, Bak and c-PARP and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. The antioxidant agents N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione weakened the effect of phloretin on glioblastoma cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that phloretin exerts potent chemo-preventive activity in human glioblastoma cells through the generation of ROS.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest; Glioblastoma; Phloretin; Reactive oxygen species

PMID:
26983952
DOI:
10.1007/s11060-016-2107-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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