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Parasit Vectors. 2016 Mar 16;9:152. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1415-7.

Horizontal transfer of β-carbonic anhydrase genes from prokaryotes to protozoans, insects, and nematodes.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Medisiinarinkatu 3, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland. zolfaghari.emameh.reza.x@student.uta.fi.
2
BioMediTech, University of Tampere, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland. zolfaghari.emameh.reza.x@student.uta.fi.
3
Fimlab Laboratories Ltd and Tampere University Hospital, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland. zolfaghari.emameh.reza.x@student.uta.fi.
4
School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Medisiinarinkatu 3, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland.
5
Department of Information Technology, University of Turku, FI-20520, Turku, Finland.
6
Fimlab Laboratories Ltd and Tampere University Hospital, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland.
7
BioMediTech, University of Tampere, FI-33520, Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a movement of genetic information occurring outside of normal mating activities. It is especially common between prokaryotic endosymbionts and their protozoan, insect, and nematode hosts. Although beta carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) plays a crucial role in metabolic functions of many living organisms, the origin of β-CA genes in eukaryotic species remains unclear.

METHODS:

This study was conducted using phylogenetics, prediction of subcellular localization, and identification of β-CA, transposase, integrase, and resolvase genes on the MGEs of bacteria. We also structurally analyzed β-CAs from protozoans, insects, and nematodes and their putative prokaryotic common ancestors, by homology modelling.

RESULTS:

Our investigations of a number of target genomes revealed that genes coding for transposase, integrase, resolvase, and conjugation complex proteins have been integrated with β-CA gene sequences on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) which have facilitated the mobility of β-CA genes from bacteria to protozoan, insect, and nematode species. The prokaryotic origin of protozoan, insect, and nematode β-CA enzymes is supported by phylogenetic analyses, prediction of subcellular localization, and homology modelling.

CONCLUSION:

MGEs form a complete set of enzymatic tools, which are relevant to HGT of β-CA gene sequences from prokaryotes to protozoans, insects, and nematodes.

KEYWORDS:

Beta carbonic anhydrase; Endosymbionts; Evolution; Horizontal gene transfer; Integrase; Mobile genetic elements; Parasite; Plasmid; Resolvase; Transposase

PMID:
26983858
PMCID:
PMC4793742
DOI:
10.1186/s13071-016-1415-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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