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J Pathog. 2016;2016:2623602. doi: 10.1155/2016/2623602. Epub 2016 Feb 14.

Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Species and Their Clinical Manifestations in Patients with Renal Transplantation and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India.
2
Department of Immunology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India.
3
Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India.

Abstract

In the present study we aimed to determine (i) frequency of Cryptosporidium species among patients with renal transplantation (RT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and (ii) relationship of the nature, severity, and duration of symptoms with different species and load of Cryptosporidium. Stool samples from 70 (42 RT and 28 HIV) and 140 immunocompromised patients with and without cryptosporidiosis by modified Kinyoun's staining were subjected to qPCR-melting curve analysis for identification of parasite species. qPCR detected one microscopically negative sample to be positive for cryptosporidiosis. C. hominis, C. parvum, and mixed infection were detected in 50/71 (70.4%), 19/71 (26.8%), and 2/71 (2.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with cryptosporidiosis had higher stool frequency (median, IQR: 4, 3-6/d versus 3, 2-4/d; P = 0.017) and watery stool (52/71 [73%] versus 64/139 [46%]; P = 0.003). Parasite load (median, IQR: Log10 6.37 (5.65-7.12), Log10 5.81 (4.26-6.65); P = 0.046) and nausea/vomiting (29/50 [58%] versus 5/19 [26%]; P = 0.032) were more frequent with C. hominis than with C. parvum infection. Thus, Cryptosporidium spp. (mainly C. hominis) is a common cause of diarrhoea in RT and HIV patients.

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