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Adv Nutr. 2016 Mar 15;7(2):399-406. doi: 10.3945/an.115.010777. Print 2016 Mar.

Circadian Rhythms, Metabolism, and Chrononutrition in Rodents and Humans.

Author information

1
University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom; j.johnston@surrey.ac.uk.
2
Tufts University, Boston, MA; Madrid Institutes of Advanced Studies-Food, Madrid, Spain;
3
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.
4
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Abstract

Chrononutrition is an emerging discipline that builds on the intimate relation between endogenous circadian (24-h) rhythms and metabolism. Circadian regulation of metabolic function can be observed from the level of intracellular biochemistry to whole-organism physiology and even postprandial responses. Recent work has elucidated the metabolic roles of circadian clocks in key metabolic tissues, including liver, pancreas, white adipose, and skeletal muscle. For example, tissue-specific clock disruption in a single peripheral organ can cause obesity or disruption of whole-organism glucose homeostasis. This review explains mechanistic insights gained from transgenic animal studies and how these data are being translated into the study of human genetics and physiology. The principles of chrononutrition have already been demonstrated to improve human weight loss and are likely to benefit the health of individuals with metabolic disease, as well as of the general population.

KEYWORDS:

chronobiology; clock gene; diabetes; dietary patterns; eating behavior; genetics; meal timing; metabolic syndrome; misalignment; obesity

PMID:
26980824
PMCID:
PMC4785478
DOI:
10.3945/an.115.010777
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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