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Schizophr Bull. 2016 Jul;42(4):992-1002. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbw022. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Cortical Gene Expression After a Conditional Knockout of 67 kDa Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Parvalbumin Neurons.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan;
2
Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan;
3
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan; Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan;
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
5
Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; takanori@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

In the cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the enzyme primarily responsible for cortical GABA synthesis, is reduced in the subset of GABA neurons that express parvalbumin (PV). This GAD67 deficit is accompanied by lower cortical levels of other GABA-associated transcripts, including GABA transporter-1, PV, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinase B, somatostatin, GABAA receptor α1 subunit, and KCNS3 potassium channel subunit mRNAs. In contrast, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), another enzyme for GABA synthesis, are not altered. We tested the hypothesis that this pattern of GABA-associated transcript levels is secondary to the GAD67 deficit in PV neurons by analyzing cortical levels of these GABA-associated mRNAs in mice with a PV neuron-specific GAD67 knockout. Using in situ hybridization, we found that none of the examined GABA-associated transcripts had lower cortical expression in the knockout mice. In contrast, PV, BDNF, KCNS3, and GAD65 mRNA levels were higher in the homozygous mice. In addition, our behavioral test battery failed to detect a change in sensorimotor gating or working memory, although the homozygous mice exhibited increased spontaneous activities. These findings suggest that reduced GAD67 expression in PV neurons is not an upstream cause of the lower levels of GABA-associated transcripts, or of the characteristic behaviors, in schizophrenia. In PV neuron-specific GAD67 knockout mice, increased levels of PV, BDNF, and KCNS3 mRNAs might be the consequence of increased neuronal activity secondary to lower GABA synthesis, whereas increased GAD65 mRNA might represent a compensatory response to increase GABA synthesis.

KEYWORDS:

cerebral cortex; in situ hybridization; mouse; prepulse inhibition; schizophrenia; working memory

PMID:
26980143
PMCID:
PMC4903066
DOI:
10.1093/schbul/sbw022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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