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Environ Technol. 2016 Nov;37(21):2793-801. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1164760. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Removal characteristics and fluctuation of norovirus in a pilot-plant by an ultrafiltration membrane for the reclamation of treated sewage.

Author information

a National Research and Development Agency Public Works Research Institute , Tokyo , Japan.
b CREST (Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology) , Japan Science and Technology Agency , Tokyo , Japan.
c National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management , Tsukuba , Japan.
d Hamamatsu City Waterworks Bureau , Shizuoka , Japan.
e Global Environment Research Laboratories , Toray Industries, Inc ., Tokyo , Japan.
f Graduate School of Engineering , Kyoto University , Kyoto , Japan.


When ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes that are able to effectively reduce viruses are installed in a waste water reclamation system, the security of sanitation safety for water-borne diseases is essential. It is important to understand the behaviour of enteric viruses such as Adenovirus, Rotavirus and Norovirus (NV), the detection rate of which is relatively high in sewage. This study focused on the UF membrane process for the reclaimed water treatment process, and investigated the removal performance in NV type GI and GII in the UF membrane process by performing coagulation and sedimentation as the pre-treatment process in a pilot-plant by considering the concentration fluctuation of the influent. The removal ratio of GI and GII by the UF membrane process alone was 3.3 ± 0.7 Log in GI and 3.6 ± 1.0 Log in GII, and no clear difference in the removal ratio by NV species type was observed. The removal ratio of NV GII was increased by about 0.6 Log on average (4.2 ± 1.1 Log) compared with the UF membrane process only when the coagulation and sedimentation process were conducted as pre-treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the removal of NV GI by conducting the coagulation and sedimentation process.


Reclamation of treated sewage; norovirus; pilot-plant; removal characteristics and fluctuation; ultrafiltration membrane

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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