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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Dec;29(24):4037-48. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2016.1154525. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

Author information

1
a Department of Pediatrics , Pt B.D. Sharma, Post Graduate Institute of Medical and Sciences , Rohtak , Haryana , India .
2
b Department of Pediatrics , Shiraz University of Medicine , Shiraz , Iran .
3
c Department of Pathology , N.K.P Salve Medical College , Nagpur , Maharashtra , India , and.
4
d R.N.T Medical College , Udaipur , Rajasthan , India.

Abstract

Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

KEYWORDS:

Asymmetrical IUGR; IUGR; foetal insulin hypothesis and MODY genes; foetal origin of adult disease; symmetrical IUGR; thrifty genotype; thrifty phenotype (Barker Hypothesis)

PMID:
26979578
DOI:
10.3109/14767058.2016.1154525
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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