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ACS Nano. 2016 Apr 26;10(4):3886-99. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.5b08015. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Evidence-Based Clinical Use of Nanoscale Extracellular Vesicles in Nanomedicine.

Author information

1
Anti-Tumor Drugs Section, Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, National Institute of Health (ISS) , 00161 Rome, Italy.
2
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences & Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin , Dublin 2, Ireland.
3
IVECAT-Group, Germans Trias i Pujol Research Institute (IGTP), and Nephrology Service, Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital , Campus Can Ruti, 08916 Badalona, Spain.
4
Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University , 1085 Budapest, Hungary.
5
Molecular Biotechnology Center, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin , 8 Turin, Italy.
6
Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo , and Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, 90133 Palermo, Italy.
7
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto , 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
8
Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology , Rua Campo Alegre, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal.
9
ICREA at Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic de Universitat de Barcelona , 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
10
ICREA at Institut d'Investigació Germans Trias i Pujol (IGTP) , 08916 Badalona, Spain.
11
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
12
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford , Oxford OX13QX, United Kingdom.
13
Sandoz Biopharmaceuticals-Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš, Slovenia.
14
Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute , 20132 Milan, Italy.
15
Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent University Hospital , 9000 Gent, Belgium.
16
Science Faculty, Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, THORLAB- Therapeutic Oligonucleotide Research Lab, Bilkent University , 06800 Bilkent, Turkey.
17
Laboratory of Clinical Biophysics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana , 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
18
UMR-1280, INRA, and University of Nantes , 44300 Nantes, France.
19
Department of Immunochemistry and Glycobiology, Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, INEP, Univeristy of Belgrade , 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
20
Chemistry Department, University of Ioannina , 45110 Ioannina, Greece.
21
University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland , Gründenstrasse 40, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.
22
Prof. Ephraim Katzir Department of Biotechnology Engineering, ORT Braude College , Karmiel 2161002, Israel.
23
Dept. of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-The Norwegian Radium Hospital , 0379 Oslo, Norway.
24
Institute for Environmental Health Sciences and Hospital Infection Control, Medical Center University of Freiburg , 79106 Freiburg am Breisgau, Germany.
25
Department of Pathology and Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto , 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.
26
Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics, Institute of Biosciences and BioResources, National Research Council of Italy, 80131 Naples, Italy.
27
Systems and Cell Biology of Neurodegeneration, University of Zurich , 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
28
Institut Curie, PSL Research University, UMR144, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d'ULM, and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR144, 75231 Paris, France.
29
Spinal Cord Injury & Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg (SCI-TReCS), Paracelsus Medical University (PMU) , 5020 Salzburg, Austria.
30
Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital, Salzburger Landeskliniken GesmbH (SALK), 5020 Salzburg, Austria.
31
Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Sta Cristina, IIS-IP, Departamento Biología Molecular/CBM-SO, UAM, 28009 Madrid, Spain.
32
Exosomics Siena SpA, 53100 Siena, Italy.
33
Laboratory for Molecular Biology and Nanobiotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry , 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
34
Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen , 45147 Essen, Germany.

Abstract

Recent research has demonstrated that all body fluids assessed contain substantial amounts of vesicles that range in size from 30 to 1000 nm and that are surrounded by phospholipid membranes containing different membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts and caveolae. The most prominent representatives of these so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized exosomes (70-150 nm), which are derivatives of the endosomal system, and microvesicles (100-1000 nm), which are produced by outward budding of the plasma membrane. Nanosized EVs are released by almost all cell types and mediate targeted intercellular communication under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Containing cell-type-specific signatures, EVs have been proposed as biomarkers in a variety of diseases. Furthermore, according to their physical functions, EVs of selected cell types have been used as therapeutic agents in immune therapy, vaccination trials, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. Undoubtedly, the rapidly emerging field of basic and applied EV research will significantly influence the biomedicinal landscape in the future. In this Perspective, we, a network of European scientists from clinical, academic, and industry settings collaborating through the H2020 European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HAD), demonstrate the high potential of nanosized EVs for both diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e., theranostic) areas of nanomedicine.

PMID:
26978483
DOI:
10.1021/acsnano.5b08015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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