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Biomed Opt Express. 2016 Jan 25;7(2):648-62. doi: 10.1364/BOE.7.000648. eCollection 2016 Feb 1.

Multimodal 3D cancer-mimicking optical phantom.

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.


Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing various aspects of optical systems, including for evaluating new probe designs, characterizing the diagnostic potential of new technologies, and assessing novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. We introduce and characterize the use of a new material, Dragon Skin (Smooth-On Inc.), and fabrication technique, air-brushing, for fabrication of a 3D phantom that mimics the appearance of a real organ under multiple imaging modalities. We demonstrate the utility of the material and technique by fabricating the first 3D, hollow bladder phantom with realistic normal and multi-stage pathology features suitable for endoscopic detection using the gold standard imaging technique, white light cystoscopy (WLC), as well as the complementary imaging modalities of optical coherence tomography and blue light cystoscopy, which are aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of WLC to bladder cancer detection. The flexibility of the material and technique used for phantom construction allowed for the representation of a wide range of diseased tissue states, ranging from inflammation (benign) to high-grade cancerous lesions. Such phantoms can serve as important tools for trainee education and evaluation of new endoscopic instrumentation.


(110.4500) Optical coherence tomography; (160.4760) Optical properties; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.7230) Urology

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