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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016 Jun;99:7-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.004. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Diverse sampling of East African haemosporidians reveals chiropteran origin of malaria parasites in primates and rodents.

Author information

1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States; Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States; Science & Education, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, United States; Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States. Electronic address: hll47@cornell.edu.
2
Science & Education, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, United States.
3
Science & Education, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL 60605, United States; College of Professional Studies, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL 60605, United States.
4
Department of Tourism and Wildlife Management, Maasai Mara University, Narok 20500, Kenya.
5
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.

Abstract

Phylogenies of parasites provide hypotheses on the history of their movements between hosts, leading to important insights regarding the processes of host switching that underlie modern-day epidemics. Haemosporidian (malaria) parasites lack a well resolved phylogeny, which has impeded the study of evolutionary processes associated with host-switching in this group. Here we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis that suggests bats served as the ancestral hosts of malaria parasites in primates and rodents. Expanding upon current taxon sampling of Afrotropical bat and bird parasites, we find strong support for all major nodes in the haemosporidian tree using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. Our analyses support a single transition of haemosporidian parasites from saurian to chiropteran hosts, and do not support a monophyletic relationship between Plasmodium parasites of birds and mammals. We find, for the first time, that Hepatocystis and Plasmodium parasites of mammals represent reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. These results highlight the importance of broad taxonomic sampling when analyzing phylogenetic relationships, and have important implications for our understanding of key host switching events in the history of malaria parasite evolution.

KEYWORDS:

Afrotropics; Chiroptera; Haemosporida; Malaria; Parasitology; Phylogenetics

PMID:
26975691
DOI:
10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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