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Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr;37(2):303-17. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1572561. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Critical Care in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

Author information

1
Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, Department of Medicine, VA Connecticut, West Haven, CT.
2
Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Intensive care unit (ICU) survival has been improved significantly for HIV-infected patients since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Non-AIDS conditions account for the majority of ICU admission diagnoses in areas with access to ART. However, opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia still account for a significant proportion of ICU admissions, particularly in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, and are associated with increased ICU mortality. We discuss risk factors and outcomes for HIV-infected admitted to the ICU in the current ART era. We review the changing patterns in ICU admission diagnoses over time and how common ICU conditions are managed in HIV-infected compared with uninfected patients. We next address issues specific to the care for HIV-infected patients in the ICU, focusing on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, ART continuation or initiation, and some common and potentially life-threatening ART-associated toxicities.

PMID:
26974306
DOI:
10.1055/s-0036-1572561
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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