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Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Apr;37(2):166-80. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1572555. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.


Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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