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Cureus. 2016 Jan 27;8(1):e470. doi: 10.7759/cureus.470.

Radiologic Considerations in Heterotaxy: The Need for Detailed Anatomic Evaluation.

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Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.
Department of Radiology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center.
Institute of Genetics, Newcastle University.
Biomedical Sciences, Denver University.


So-called "heterotaxy" is a laterality defect characterized by isomerism of the thoracic organs and random arrangement of the abdominal organs. These findings go beyond anatomic curiosity and have functional implications. It is, thus, of the utmost importance to be able to properly identify these findings. Radiologic studies can be invaluable in determining anomalies in the central nervous, pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and immunologic systems in patients with isomerism. Here, we review findings associated with isomerism and their importance in the setting of isomerism with the aim of ensuring that radiologists effectively describe findings in these patients and that cardiologists understand the wide variety of congenital malformations that may be present.


bronchial; congenital; heterotaxy; isomerism; malrotation; neural; single ventricle; spleen; univentricular

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