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Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Apr;127(4):1931-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

Author information

1
Hersencentrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address: hessel@hersencentrum.nl.
2
Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
3
Hersencentrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; VU University, Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Hersencentrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5
VU University, Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance.

METHODS:

25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3).

RESULTS:

Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance.

CONCLUSION:

Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term.

SIGNIFICANCE:

This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG.

KEYWORDS:

Brain modulation; Electroencephalography; Long-term effects; Neurofeedback

PMID:
26971473
DOI:
10.1016/j.clinph.2016.01.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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