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Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2016 Jun;11(6):981-90. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw028. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Opposing effects of negative emotion on amygdalar and hippocampal memory for items and associations.

Author information

1
UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, WC1N 3AZ UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1N 3BG, UK j.bisby@ucl.ac.uk.
2
UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, WC1N 3AZ UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Abstract

Although negative emotion can strengthen memory of an event it can also result in memory disturbances, as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the effects of negative item content on amygdalar and hippocampal function in memory for the items themselves and for the associations between them. During fMRI, we examined encoding and retrieval of paired associates made up of all four combinations of neutral and negative images. At test, participants were cued with an image and, if recognised, had to retrieve the associated (target) image. The presence of negative images increased item memory but reduced associative memory. At encoding, subsequent item recognition correlated with amygdala activity, while subsequent associative memory correlated with hippocampal activity. Hippocampal activity was reduced by the presence of negative images, during encoding and correct associative retrieval. In contrast, amygdala activity increased for correctly retrieved negative images, even when cued by a neutral image. Our findings support a dual representation account, whereby negative emotion up-regulates the amygdala to strengthen item memory but down-regulates the hippocampus to weaken associative representations. These results have implications for the development and treatment of clinical disorders in which diminished associations between emotional stimuli and their context contribute to negative symptoms, as in PTSD.

KEYWORDS:

amygdala; associative memory; hippocampus; item memory

PMID:
26969864
PMCID:
PMC4884322
DOI:
10.1093/scan/nsw028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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