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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 May 2;82(10):2909-2918. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03627-15. Print 2016 May 15.

Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates.

Author information

1
Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, Villenave d'Ornon, France, and INRA, ISVV, USC Œnologie, Villenave d'Ornon, France.
2
INRA, UMR 1202, Biodiversité Gènes et Ecosystèmes, Plateforme Génomique, Cestas, France.
3
SPO, INRA, SupAgro, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France legrasjl@supagro.inra.fr isabelle.masneuf@agro-bordeaux.fr.
4
Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, Villenave d'Ornon, France, and INRA, ISVV, USC Œnologie, Villenave d'Ornon, France legrasjl@supagro.inra.fr isabelle.masneuf@agro-bordeaux.fr.
5
Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Gradignan, France.

Abstract

Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted.

IMPORTANCE:

High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted.

PMID:
26969698
PMCID:
PMC4959077
DOI:
10.1128/AEM.03627-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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