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Pain Med. 2016 Oct;17(10):1865-1881. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Mindfulness Meditation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention Reduces Pain Severity and Sensitivity in Opioid-Treated Chronic Low Back Pain: Pilot Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Author information

1
Department of *Family Medicine and Community Health, aleksandra.zgierska@fammed.wisc.edu.
2
Department of *Family Medicine and Community Health.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics.
4
Department of Research Service, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin.
5
Department of Department of Kinesiology, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
6
Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation.
7
Department of Harlow Center for Biological Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
8
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison,Wisconsin.
9
Department of **PRAHS Clinical Research Company Lifetree, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess benefits of mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based intervention for opioid-treated chronic low back pain (CLBP).

DESIGN:

26-week parallel-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (Intervention and Usual Care versus Usual Care alone).

SETTING:

Outpatient.

SUBJECTS:

Adults with CLBP, prescribed ≥30 mg/day of morphine-equivalent dose (MED) for at least 3 months.

METHODS:

The intervention comprised eight weekly group sessions (meditation and CLBP-specific CBT components) and 30 minutes/day, 6 days/week of at-home practice. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 8, and 26 weeks: primary-pain severity (Brief Pain Inventory) and function/disability (Oswestry Disability Index); secondary-pain acceptance, opioid dose, pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli, and serum pain-sensitive biomarkers (Interferon-γ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-α; Interleukins 1ß and 6; C-reactive Protein).

RESULTS:

Thirty-five (21 experimental, 14 control) participants were enrolled and completed the study. They were 51.8 ± 9.7 years old, 80% female, with severe CLBP-related disability (66.7 ± 11.4), moderate pain severity (5.8 ± 1.4), and taking 148.3 ± 129.2 mg/day of MED. Results of the intention-to-treat analysis showed that, compared with controls, the meditation-CBT group reduced pain severity ratings during the study (P = 0.045), with between-group difference in score change reaching 1 point at 26 weeks (95% Confidence Interval: 0.2,1.9; Cohen's d = 0.86), and decreased pain sensitivity to thermal stimuli (P < 0.05), without adverse events. Exploratory analyses suggested a relationship between the extent of meditation practice and the magnitude of intervention benefits.

CONCLUSIONS:

Meditation-CBT intervention reduced pain severity and sensitivity to experimental thermal pain stimuli in patients with opioid-treated CLBP.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01775995.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic Low Back Pain; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Long-Term Opioid Therapy; Mindfulness Meditation

PMID:
26968850
PMCID:
PMC5063022
DOI:
10.1093/pm/pnw006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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