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Bone. 2016 Jun;87:19-26. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2016.03.006. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Epidemiology of fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Author information

1
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
2
Dept of Internal Medicine, VieCuri Medical Center, Venloseweg, 595971 PB Venlo, The Netherlands.
3
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK; Paediatric Endocrinology, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
4
Dept of Internal Medicine, VieCuri Medical Center, Venloseweg, 595971 PB Venlo, The Netherlands; Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Subdivision of Rheumatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands; University Hasselt, Hasselt, Belgium.
6
Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Pharmacoepidemiology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Utrecht, Utrecht 3508 TB, The Netherlands.
7
Department of Pharmacoepidemiology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Utrecht, Utrecht 3508 TB, The Netherlands; Health eResearch Centre, Farr Institute for Health Informatics Research, University of Manchester, 1.003 Vaughan House, Portsmouth Road, M13 9PL, UK.
8
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK; NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopedic Centre, Headington, Oxford OX3 7HE, UK. Electronic address: cc@mrc.soton.ac.uk.
9
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.

Abstract

Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24-year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained.

INTRODUCTION:

With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

METHODS:

The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged ≥18years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age- and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated.

RESULTS:

Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age- and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong associations between deprivation and fracture risk were observed in hip fracture in men, with a relative risk of 1.3 (95% CI 1.21-1.41) in Index of Multiple Deprivation category 5 (representing the most deprived) compared to category 1.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study presents robust estimates of fracture incidence across the UK, which will aid decisions regarding allocation of healthcare provision to populations of greatest need. It will also assist the implementation and design of strategies to reduce fracture incidence and its personal and financial impact on individuals and health services.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Ethnicity; Fractures; Geography; Incidence; Osteoporosis; Sex; Socioeconomic status

PMID:
26968752
PMCID:
PMC4890652
DOI:
10.1016/j.bone.2016.03.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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