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Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2016 Mar 4;5(2):5. eCollection 2016 Mar.

Normal Values for the Full Visual Field, Corrected for Age- and Reaction Time, Using Semiautomated Kinetic Testing on the Octopus 900 Perimeter.

Author information

Centre for Ophthalmology/Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, Germany.
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences and Wynn Institute for Vision Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
Institute for Medical Biometry and Statistics and the Center for Clinical Trials, University of Lübeck, Germany.
Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
Centre for Ophthalmology/Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, Germany ; Competence Center Vision Research, Study Course "Ophthalmic Optics and Audiology", Faculty of Optics and Mechatronics, University of Applied Sciences, Aalen, Germany.



To determine normal values of the visual field (VF), corrected for age and reaction time (RT) for semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) on the Octopus 900 perimeter, create a model describing the age-dependency of these values, and assess test-retest reliability for each isopter.


Eighty-six eyes of 86 ophthalmologically healthy subjects (age 11-79 years, 34 males, 52 females) underwent full-field kinetic perimetry with the Octopus 900 instrument. Stimulus size, luminance, velocity, meridional angle, subject age, and their interactions, were used to create a smooth multiple regression mathematical model (V/4e, III/4e, I/4e, I/3e, I/2e, I/1e, and I/1a isopters). Fourteen subjects (2 from each of 7 age groups) were evaluated on three separate sessions to assess test-retest reliability of the isopters. Reaction time (RT) was tested by presenting 12 designated RT-vectors between 10° and 20° within the seeing areas for the III/4e isopter (stimulus velocity, 3°/second). Four RT- vectors were presented at the nasal (0° or 180°), superotemporal (45°), and inferior (270°) meridians.


The model fit was excellent (r2 = 0.94). The test-retest variability was less than 5°, and the median decrease in this deviation attributed to aging, per decade, for all age groups and for all stimulus sizes was 0.8°. No significant learning effect was observed for any age group or isopter.


Age-corrected and RT-corrected normative threshold values for full-field kinetic perimetry can be adequately described by a smooth multiple linear regression mathematical model.


A description of the entire kinetic VF is useful for assessing a full characterization of VF sensitivity, determining function losses associated with ocular and neurologic diseases, and for providing a more comprehensive analysis of structure-function relationships.


full visual field; normal values; perimetry; semiautomated kinetic testing; visual fields

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