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Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug;56:68-83. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.01.021. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Antibody-induced neutrophil depletion prior to the onset of pneumococcal meningitis influences long-term neurological complications in mice.

Author information

1
Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
2
The Centenary Institute, Newtown, NSW 2042, Australia.
3
School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
4
Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Bosch Institute and School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. Electronic address: Nicholas.hunt@sydney.edu.au.

Abstract

During pneumococcal meningitis, clearance of bacteria by recruited neutrophils is crucial for host protection. However, these innate immune mechanisms are often insufficient and treatment with antibiotics is necessary to prevent death. Despite this antibiotic treatment, approximately half of all survivors suffer lifelong neurological problems. There is growing evidence indicating the harmful effects of neutrophils on CNS integrity. Therefore, the present study investigated the roles of neutrophils in the acute inflammatory response and the resulting long-term neuropsychological effects in murine pneumococcal meningitis. Long-term behavioural and cognitive functions in mice were measured using an automated IntelliCage system. Neutrophil depletion with antibody 1A8 as adjunctive therapy was shown to remarkably impair survival in meningitic C57BL/6J mice despite antibiotic (ceftriaxone) treatment. This was accompanied by increased bacterial load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and an increase in IL-1β, but decrease in TNF, within the CSF at 20h after bacterial inoculation. In the longer term, the surviving neutrophil-depleted post-meningitic (PM) mice displayed reduced diurnal hypolocomotion compared to PM mice treated with an isotype antibody. However, they showed nocturnal hyperactivity, and greater learning impairment in a patrolling task that is believed to depend upon an intact hippocampus. The data thus demonstrate two important mechanisms: 1. Neutrophil extravasation into the CNS during pneumococcal meningitis influences the pro-inflammatory response and is central to control of the bacterial load, an increase in which may lead to death. 2. Neutrophil-mediated changes in the acute inflammatory response modulate the neuropsychological sequelae in mice that survive pneumococcal meningitis.

KEYWORDS:

Behaviour; Central nervous system; Cognition; Infectious disease; IntelliCage; Neurological sequelae; Neutrophils; Pneumococcal meningitis; Streptococcus pneumoniae

PMID:
26965652
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbi.2016.01.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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