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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Mar 15;67(10):1214-1226. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.12.051.

Long Noncoding RNAs: From Clinical Genetics to Therapeutic Targets?

Author information

1
Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; German Center of Cardiovascular Research, Berlin, Germany.
2
Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
3
German Center of Cardiovascular Research, Berlin, Germany; Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.
4
Institute for Cardiovascular Regeneration, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; German Center of Cardiovascular Research, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: dimmeler@em.uni-frankfurt.de.

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that the majority of the human genome is transcribed, but only about 2% accounts for protein-coding exons. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a heterogenic class of RNAs that includes, for example, intergenic lncRNAs, antisense transcripts, and enhancer RNAs. Moreover, alternative splicing can lead to the formation of circular RNAs. In support of putative functions, GWAS for cardiovascular diseases have shown predictive single-nucleotide polymorphisms in lncRNAs, such as the 9p21 susceptibility locus that encodes the lncRNA antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL). Many lncRNAs are regulated during disease. For example, metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) were shown to affect endothelial cell functions and diabetic retinopathy, whereas lincRNA-p21 controls neointima formation. In the heart, several lncRNAs were shown to act as microRNA sponges and to control ischemia-reperfusion injury or act as epigenetic regulators. In this review, the authors summarize the current understanding of lncRNA functions and their role as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases.

KEYWORDS:

cardiac; long noncoding RNA; microRNA; vascular

PMID:
26965544
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2015.12.051
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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