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Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 Apr;15(4):235-47. doi: 10.1038/nrd.2015.35. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Development of immuno-oncology drugs - from CTLA4 to PD1 to the next generations.

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Oncology Research and Development, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.


Since the regulatory approval of ipilimumab in 2011, the field of cancer immunotherapy has been experiencing a renaissance. This success is based on progress in both preclinical and clinical science, including the development of new methods of investigation. Immuno-oncology has become a sub-specialty within oncology owing to its unique science and its potential for substantial and long-term clinical benefit. Immunotherapy agents do not directly attack the tumour but instead mobilize the immune system - this can be achieved through various approaches that utilize adaptive or innate immunity. Therefore, immuno-oncology drug development encompasses a broad range of agents, including antibodies, peptides, proteins, small molecules, adjuvants, cytokines, oncolytic viruses, bi-specific molecules and cellular therapies. This Perspective summarizes the recent history of cancer immunotherapy, including the factors that led to its success, provides an overview of novel drug-development considerations, summarizes three generations of immunotherapies that have been developed since 2011 and, thus, illustrates the breadth of opportunities these new generations of immunotherapies represent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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