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Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2016 Sep;15(3):195-203. doi: 10.1016/j.clcc.2016.02.008. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology, Disease Mechanisms and Interventions to Reduce Onset and Mortality.

Author information

1
Clinical Research Division, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: varanponte@gmail.com.
2
Clinical Research Division, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
3
Clinical Epidemiology Program, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
4
Clinical Research Division, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; National Clinical Cancer Research Network (RNPCC) - SCTIE/MS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease resulting from lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors. There are hereditary and non-hereditary CRC types; however, the majority are non-hereditary and mainly caused by somatic mutations in response to environmental factors. In past years, researchers have focused their attention on the mechanisms behind these factors and the methods of improving disease prevention and treatment. Improving the awareness of the population with regard to the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet associated with exercise, could globally reduce CRC risk. The present review aims to address the current knowledge on CRC, taking into consideration the common molecular alterations upon different environmental and non-environmental factors, current and promising treatment interventions, and how all these factors may interact to positively or negatively influence CRC risk.

KEYWORDS:

Colorectal cancer incidence; Genetics; Prevention; Risk factors; Treatment

PMID:
26964802
DOI:
10.1016/j.clcc.2016.02.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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