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Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Mar 9;19(3):311-22. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.02.011.

Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
2
Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
3
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.
4
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
6
Vedanta Biosciences, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
7
Médecins Sans Frontières Epicentre, 1956 Mbarara, Uganda.
8
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
9
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.
10
Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
11
Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: dkwon@mgh.harvard.edu.
12
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address: virgin@wustl.edu.

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; AIDS enteropathy; HIV; adenovirus; microbiome; systemic inflammation; virome

PMID:
26962942
PMCID:
PMC4821831
DOI:
10.1016/j.chom.2016.02.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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