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Trends Genet. 1989 Dec;5(12):411-7.

The alpha 1-antitrypsin gene and its deficiency states.


alpha 1-antitrypsin, a 52 kDa antiprotease, provides the major defense to the lower respiratory tract against the ravages of neutrophil elastase, a powerful serine protease. A variety of mutations in the coding exons of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene result in 'alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency', leading to emphysema at an early age. A subset of mutations cause liver disease and a rare mutation is associated with a bleeding diathesis. Preventive treatment for the emphysema associated with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency is available in the form of intermittent infusions with alpha 1-antitrypsin, and strategies have been developed to reverse the deficiency state with gene therapy.

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