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Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2016 Aug;28(8):490-500. doi: 10.1016/j.clon.2016.02.005. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

Moderate Hypofractionation with Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Prostate Cancer: Long-term Results of a Phase I-II Study.

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Department of Radiation Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Radiation Oncology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Radiotherapy, Milan, Italy.
Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.



To report 5 year outcome and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided tomotherapy with a moderate hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost approach.


In total, 211 prostate cancer patients, 78 low risk, 53 intermediate risk and 80 high risk were treated between 2005 and 2011. Intermediate- and high-risk patients received 51.8 Gy to pelvic lymph nodes and concomitant simultaneous integrated boost to prostate up to 74.2 Gy/28 fractions, whereas low-risk patients were treated to the prostate only with 71.4 Gy/28 fractions. Daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image guidance was applied. Androgen deprivation was prescribed for a median duration of 6 months for low-risk patients (for downsizing), 12 months for intermediate-risk and 36 months for high-risk patients. The 5 year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival and late gastrointestinal and genitourinary CTCAE.v3 toxicity were assessed. The effect of several clinical variables on both outcome and gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity was tested by uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses.


After a median follow-up of 5 years, the late toxicity actuarial incidence was: genitourinary ≥ grade 2: 20.2%; genitourinary ≥ grade 3: 5.9%; gastrointestinal ≥ grade 2: 17%; gastrointestinal ≥ grade 3: 6.3% with lower prevalence at the last follow-up visit (≥ grade 3: genitourinary: 1.9%; gastrointestinal: 1.9%). Major predictors of ≥ grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal late toxicity were genitourinary acute toxicity ≥ grade 2 (hazard ratio: 4.9) and previous surgery (hazard ratio: 3.4). The overall 5 year bRFS was 93.7% (low risk: 94.6%; intermediate risk: 96.2%; high risk: 91.1%), overall survival and CSS were 88.6% (low risk: 90.5%; intermediate risk: 87.4%; high risk: 87%) and 97.5% (low risk: 98.7%; intermediate risk: 95%; high risk: 94.3%), respectively. Risk classes and androgen deprivation were not significantly correlated with either bRFS, overall survival or CSS. Twelve patients experienced a biochemical relapse but none experienced clinically proven local and/or pelvic recurrence.


A satisfactory 5 year outcome with an acceptable toxicity profile was observed. The combination of image-guided radiotherapy-intensity-modulated radiotherapy, high equivalent 2 Gy dose (EQD2) with a moderate hypofractionated approach and extensive prophylactic lymph node irradiation also leads to very good outcome in high-risk patients.


Moderate hypofractionation; prostate cancer; simultaneous integrated boost; tomotherapy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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