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Int J Ment Health Syst. 2016 Mar 8;10:19. doi: 10.1186/s13033-016-0049-7. eCollection 2016.

Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94127 USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121 USA.
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, BG 9609 MSC 9760, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-9760 USA.
Teachers College, Columbia University, 325 HMann 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 USA.


Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs.


Depression; Effectiveness-implementation hybrid; HIV; Implementation science; Interpersonal psychotherapy; Low and middle income countries (LMICs); Mental health; Trauma; Treatment gap

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