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Curr Hypertens Rep. 2016 Apr;18(4):30. doi: 10.1007/s11906-016-0635-8.

Neural Control of Non-vasomotor Organs in Hypertension.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, 2300 Eye Street NW, 448 Ross Hall, Washington, D.C., 20037, USA.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, 2300 Eye Street NW, 448 Ross Hall, Washington, D.C., 20037, USA. colinyoung@gwu.edu.

Abstract

Hypertension affects over 25 % of the population with the incidence continuing to rise, due in part to the growing obesity epidemic. Chronic elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) are a hallmark of the disease and contribute to elevations in blood pressure through influences on the vasculature, kidney, and heart (i.e., neurogenic hypertension). In this regard, a number of central nervous system mechanisms and neural pathways have emerged as crucial in chronically elevating SNA. However, it is important to consider that "sympathetic signatures" are present, with differential increases in SNA to regional organs that are dependent upon the disease progression. Here, we discuss recent findings on the central nervous system mechanisms and autonomic regulatory networks involved in neurogenic hypertension, in both non-obesity- and obesity-associated hypertension, with an emphasis on angiotensin-II, salt, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and the adipokine leptin.

KEYWORDS:

Autonomic; Blood pressure; Brain; Central nervous system; Sympathetic nerve activity

PMID:
26957306
PMCID:
PMC5078991
DOI:
10.1007/s11906-016-0635-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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