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Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2016 Oct;28(5):272-85. doi: 10.1017/neu.2016.9. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction.

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1
1Department of Psychology,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart,Milan,Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The present research explored the cortical correlates of rewarding mechanisms and cortical 'unbalance' effect in internet addiction (IA) vulnerability.

METHODS:

Internet Addiction Inventory (IAT) and personality trait (Behavioural Inhibition System, BIS; Behavioural Activation System, BAS) were applied to 28 subjects. Electroencephalographic (EEG, alpha frequency band) and response times (RTs) were registered during a Go-NoGo task execution in response to different online stimuli: gambling videos, videogames or neutral stimuli. Higher-IAT (more than 50 score, with moderate or severe internet addiction) and lower-IAT (<50 score, with no internet addiction).

RESULTS:

Alpha band and RTs were affected by IAT, with significant bias (reduced RTs) for high-IAT in response to gambling videos and videogames; and by BAS, BAS-Reward subscale (BAS-R), since not only higher-IAT, but also BAS and BAS-R values determined an increasing of left prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity (alpha reduction) in response to videogames and gambling stimuli for both Go and NoGo conditions, in addition to decreased RTs for these stimuli categories.

CONCLUSION:

The increased PFC responsiveness and the lateralisation (left PFC hemisphere) effect in NoGo condition was explained on the basis of a 'rewarding bias' towards more rewarding cues and a deficit in inhibitory control in higher-IAT and higher-BAS subjects. In contrast lower-IAT and lower-BAS predicted a decreased PFC response and increased RTs for NoGo (inhibitory mechanism). These results may support the significance of personality (BAS) and IAT measures for explaining future internet addiction behaviour based on this observed 'vulnerability'.

KEYWORDS:

BAS; IAT; alpha band; gambling; internet addiction; rewarding mechanism

PMID:
26956807
DOI:
10.1017/neu.2016.9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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