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J Oral Pathol Med. 1989 Dec;18(10):554-64.

Oral candidiasis and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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  • 1Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, Scotland.


The association of oral candidiasis with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic implications for the eventual development of full blown AIDS. There is now an expanding body of data on novel clinical variants of this 'old' disease, its epidemiology in HIV seropositive individuals and, advances in its management, particularly with respect to the recently introduced bis-triazole antifungals. Current concepts pertaining to the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis in HIV infection are reviewed.

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