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Pregnancy Hypertens. 2016 Jan;6(1):42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.preghy.2016.01.001. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

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  • 1Department of Midwifery, Jendral Achmad Yani STIKES, Jalan Ring Road Barat, Kecamatan Gamping, Kelurahan Ambarketawang, Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta Special Region, 55294, Indonesia; Midwifery Master Study Programme, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia. Electronic address: budiayu_88@yahoo.co.id.
  • 2Department of Midwifery, Jendral Achmad Yani STIKES, Jalan Ring Road Barat, Kecamatan Gamping, Kelurahan Ambarketawang, Kabupaten Sleman, Yogyakarta Special Region, 55294, Indonesia.
  • 3Obstetric and Ginecology Laboratory, Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Indonesia.

Abstract

This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by both the 50 and 100 ppm treatments of T. cacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia.

KEYWORDS:

Adhesion molecule; Endothelial; Pro-inflammatory; Viability

PMID:
26955771
DOI:
10.1016/j.preghy.2016.01.001
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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