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Int J Neurosci. 2016 Dec;126(12):1051-60. doi: 10.3109/00207454.2016.1163550. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Th17 cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a review.

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a Department of Neurology , First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou , China.


Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been identified as a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which has been recognized as a B cell-mediated humoral immune disease. However, cases have been reported indicating that some of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have been resistant to B cell-related treatments. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that T cell-mediated immunity may take part in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, especially in the Th17 phenotype. In our PUBMED search, we used the following keywords: Th17 cell, Th17 cell-related cytokines, T cells, B cells, B cell-related productions, NMO, NMOSD, recurrent/bilateral optic neuritis, recurrent transverse myelitis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. We systemically reviewed the role of Th17 cells and Th17 cell-related cytokines in NMOSD. We found that Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and TGF-β, are not only directly involved in the pathogenesis but also collaborated with B cells and B cell-related antibody production to induce CNS lesions. Th17 cell-related therapy has also been reviewed in this article, and the data suggested that Th17 may be a new therapeutic target of NMOSD.


B cell; T-B cell collaboration; Th17 cell; Th17 cell cytokines; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

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