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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Jun;71(6):1619-26. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw039. Epub 2016 Mar 6.

Prevalence and dynamics of the K65R drug resistance mutation in HIV-1-infected infants exposed to maternal therapy with lamivudine, zidovudine and either nevirapine or nelfinavir in breast milk.

Author information

  • 1Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • 2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
  • 3Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.
  • 4Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • 5Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kisumu, Kenya cbz2@cdc.gov.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

K65R is a relatively rare drug resistance mutation (DRM) selected by the NRTIs tenofovir, didanosine, abacavir and stavudine and confers cross-resistance to all NRTIs except zidovudine. Selection by other NRTIs is uncommon.

OBJECTIVES:

In this study we investigated the frequency of emergence of the K65R mutation and factors associated with it in HIV-1-infected infants exposed to low doses of maternal lamivudine, zidovudine and either nevirapine or nelfinavir ingested through breast milk, using specimens collected from the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study.

METHODS:

Plasma specimens with viral load ≥1000 copies/mL collected from HIV-infected infants at 0-1, 2, 6, 14, 24 and 36 weeks of age and maternal samples at delivery were tested for HIV drug resistance using Sanger sequencing of the polymerase gene. Factors associated with K65R emergence were assessed using Fisher's exact test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

RESULTS:

K65R was detected in samples from 6 of the 24 infants (25%) who acquired HIV-1 infection by the age of 6 months. K65R emerged in half of the infants by 6 weeks and in the rest by 14 weeks of age. None of the mothers at delivery or the infants with a positive genotype at first time of positivity had the K65R mutation. Infants with K65R had low baseline CD4 cell counts (P = 0.014), were more likely to have DRMs earlier (≤6 weeks versus ≥14 weeks, P = 0.007) and were more likely to have multiclass drug resistance (P = 0.035). M184V was the most common mutation associated with K65R emergence. K65R had reverted by 3 months after cessation of breastfeeding.

CONCLUSIONS:

A high rate of K65R emergence may suggest that ingesting low doses of lamivudine via breast milk could select for this mutation. The presence of this mutation may have a negative impact on future responses to NRTI-based ART. More in vitro studies are, however, needed to establish the molecular mechanism for this selection.

PMID:
26953333
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkw039
[PubMed - in process]
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