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Virulence. 2016 Apr 2;7(3):320-8. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2016.1158359.

Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

Author information

1
a Infectious Diseases Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, University of Genoa , Genoa , Italy.

Abstract

In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; BSI; Gram negative; Gram positive; HIV; bacteriemia; bloodstream infection; fungemia; mycobacteria; sepsis

PMID:
26950194
PMCID:
PMC4871667
DOI:
10.1080/21505594.2016.1158359
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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