Send to

Choose Destination
Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016 Mar-Apr;12(3):659-667. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2015.12.010. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

An optimized multivitamin supplement lowers the number of vitamin and mineral deficiencies three years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a cohort study.

Author information

Department of Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
Department of Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Department of Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.



Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. In particular, inadequate serum concentrations of ferritin and vitamin B12 have been found in 11% and 23% (respectively) of patients using a standard multivitamin supplement (sMVS) 1 year after RYGB.


To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Weight Loss Surgery (WLS) Forte® (a pharmaceutical-grade, optimized multivitamin supplement) compared with an sMVS and a control group (nonuser) 3 years after RYGB.


General hospital specialized in bariatric surgery.


A follow-up cohort study of a triple-blind randomized, controlled clinical trial.


At baseline 148 patients were enrolled (74 [50%] in the sMVS group and 74 [50%] in the WLS Forte group). After a mean follow-up of 36 months, 11 (7%) patients were lost to follow-up, of whom 2 were secondary to death. At the end of the study, 11 (17%) patients in the WLS Forte and 17 (24%) in the sMVS group stopped using a supplement. In addition, 64 (47%) patients were using WLS Forte and 45 (33%) patients a sMVS. Patient characteristics and follow-up length were comparable between the groups. Significantly more patients were diagnosed with anemia (16% versus 3% [P = .021]), a ferritin deficiency (14% versus 3% [P = .043]), and a zinc deficiency (8% versus 0% [P = .033]) in the sMVS group compared with WLS Forte. Five patients developed a vitamin B12 deficiency while using WLS Forte, versus 15 of sMVS users (P = .001). No adverse events occurred that were related to supplement use.


At 3 years postoperative of RYGB, an optimized multivitamin supplement (WLS Forte) was more effective in reducing anemia and ferritin, vitamin B12, and zinc deficiencies compared with a standard supplement and control.


Bariatric surgery; Deficiency; Dietary supplements; Gastric bypass; Malnutrition; Minerals; Vitamins

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center