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Environ Pollut. 2016 Jun;213:395-402. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.036. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

Li K1, Du P1, Xu Z1, Gao T1, Li X2.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, PR China.
2
Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, PR China. Electronic address: xli@urban.pku.edu.cn.

Abstract

Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China.

KEYWORDS:

China; Illict drugs; Ketamine; Methamphetamine; Occurrence; Surface water

PMID:
26942687
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.036
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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