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J Infect. 2016 May;72(5):507-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.02.011. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Zika fever and congenital Zika syndrome: An unexpected emerging arboviral disease.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.
2
Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.
3
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China; Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address: kyyuen@hku.hk.

Abstract

Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected "congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El NiƱo effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine.

KEYWORDS:

Aedes; Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Virus; Zika

PMID:
26940504
DOI:
10.1016/j.jinf.2016.02.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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