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Plant Sci. 2016 Apr;245:94-118. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.01.006. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage.

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INRA, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33140 Villenave D'Ornon, France; Bordeaux Sciences Agro, UMR 1391 ISPA, F-33170, Gradignan, France; Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, EH25 9SY, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:
ADAS High Mowthorpe, Duggleby, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 8BP, UK.
INRA, UMR 547 PIAF, F-63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, UMR 547 PIAF, F-63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France.


Land plants have adapted to survive under a range of wind climates and this involve changes in chemical composition, physical structure and morphology at all scales from the cell to the whole plant. Under strong winds plants can re-orientate themselves, reconfigure their canopies, or shed needles, leaves and branches in order to reduce the drag. If the wind is too strong the plants oscillate until the roots or stem fail. The mechanisms of root and stem failure are very similar in different plants although the exact details of the failure may be different. Cereals and other herbaceous crops can often recover after wind damage and even woody plants can partially recovery if there is sufficient access to water and nutrients. Wind damage can have major economic impacts on crops, forests and urban trees. This can be reduced by management that is sensitive to the local site and climatic conditions and accounts for the ability of plants to acclimate to their local wind climate. Wind is also a major disturbance in many plant ecosystems and can play a crucial role in plant regeneration and the change of successional stage.


Dynamic loading; Ecological disturbance; Plant acclimation; Plant adaptation; Plant mechanics; Thigmomorphogenesis; Wind; Wind damage

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