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AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016 Jul;37(7):1256-61. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A4706. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Atypical Presentations of Intracranial Hypotension: Comparison with Classic Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension.

Author information

1
From the Department of Radiology (A.A.C., T.M.), University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa aristides-capizzano@uiowa.edu.
2
Department of Radiology (L.L.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
3
Department of Radiology (J.K.), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
4
Department of Neurological Sciences (M.R.), University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.
5
Department of Radiology (L.G.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
6
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine (K.S.), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
7
From the Department of Radiology (A.A.C., T.M.), University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Atypical clinical presentations of spontaneous intracranial hypotension include obtundation, memory deficits, dementia with frontotemporal features, parkinsonism, and ataxia. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and imaging features of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with typical-versus-atypical presentations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Clinical records and neuroimaging of patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension from September 2005 to August 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with classic spontaneous intracranial hypotension (n = 33; mean age, 41.7 ± 14.3 years) were compared with those with intracranial hypotension with atypical clinical presentation (n = 8; mean age, 55.9 ± 14.1 years) and 36 controls (mean age, 41.4 ± 11.2 years).

RESULTS:

Patients with atypical spontaneous intracranial hypotension were older than those with classic spontaneous intracranial hypotension (55.9 ± 14.1 years versus 41.7 ± 14.3 years; P = .018). Symptom duration was shorter in classic compared with atypical spontaneous intracranial hypotension (3.78 ± 7.18 months versus 21.93 ± 18.43 months; P = .015). There was no significant difference in dural enhancement, subdural hematomas, or cerebellar tonsil herniation. Patients with atypical spontaneous intracranial hypotension had significantly more elongated anteroposterior midbrain diameter compared with those with classic spontaneous intracranial hypotension (33.6 ± 2.9 mm versus 27.3 ± 2.9 mm; P < .001) and shortened pontomammillary distance (2.8 ± 1 mm versus 5.15 ± 1.5 mm; P < .001). Patients with atypical spontaneous intracranial hypotension were less likely to become symptom-free, regardless of treatment, compared with those with classic spontaneous intracranial hypotension (χ(2) = 13.99, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this sample of 8 patients, atypical spontaneous intracranial hypotension was a more chronic syndrome compared with classic spontaneous intracranial hypotension, with more severe brain sagging, lower rates of clinical response, and frequent relapses. Awareness of atypical presentations of spontaneous intracranial hypotension is paramount.

PMID:
26939631
DOI:
10.3174/ajnr.A4706
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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